Founded in 1660, The Royal Society serves as the leading academy of sciences of the United Kingdom and is a member organization of the Science Council.
- 2015: Andrew Read, Evan Pugh Professor of Biology and Entomology, Eberly Professor in Biotechnology, Eberly College of Science Distinguished Senior Scholar
- 2008: Peter Hudson, Willaman Professor of Biology
- 1999: Barry Marshall, Francis R. and Helen M. Pentz Visiting Professor
- 1999: Alan Walker, Evan Pugh Professor of Anthropology and Biology
- 1990: Robert Vaughan, Professor of Mathematics
- 1972: Roger Penrose, Francis R. Pentz and Helen M. Pentz Distinguished Visiting Professor of Physics and Mathematics
- 1967: C. R. Rao, Emeritus Holder of the Eberly Family Chair in Statistics